Barbraud, C. & Weimerskirch, H. 2001, “Emperor penguins and climate change”, Nature, vol. 411, no. 6834, pp. 183-186.

Campbell, G.S. & Norman, J.M. 1998, An introduction to environmental biophysics, Second edition, .

Chappell, M.A., Shoemaker, V.H., Janes, D.N., Bucher, T.L. & Maloney, S.K. 1993, “Diving Behavior during Foraging in Breeding Adelie Penguins”, Ecology, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 1204-1215.

Cimino, M.A., Fraser, W.R., Irwin, A.J. & Oliver, M.J. 2013, “Satellite data identify decadal trends in the quality of Pygoscelis penguin chick-rearing habitat”, Global Change Biology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 136-148.

Davis, R.W., Croxall, J.P. & Oconnell, M.J. 1989, “The Reproductive Energetics of Gentoo (Pygoscelis-Papua) and Macaroni (Eudyptes-Chrysolophus) Penguins at South Georgia”, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 59-74.

Dawson, C., Vincent, J.F.V., Jeronimidis, G., Rice, G. & Forshaw, P. 1999, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers”, Journal of theoretical biology, vol. 199, no. 3, pp. 291-295.

Drent, R.H. & Stonehou.B 1971, “Thermoregulatory Responses of Peruvian Penguin, Spheniscus-Humboldti”, Comparative biochemistry and physiology, vol. 40, no. 3A, pp. 689-&.

Du, N., Fan, J., Wu, H., Chen, S. & Liu, Y. 2007, “An improved model of heat transfer through penguin feathers and down”, Journal of theoretical biology, vol. 248, no. 4, pp. 727-735.

Erdmann, E.S., Ribic, C.A., Patterson-Fraser, D.L. & Fraser, W.R. 2011, “Characterization of winter foraging locations of Adelie penguins along the Western Antarctic Peninsula, 2001-2002″, Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol. 58, no. 13-16, pp. 1710-1718.

Guinard, E., Weimerskirch, H. & Jouventin, P. 1998, “Population changes and demography of the Northern Rockhopper Penguin on Amsterdam and Saint Paul islands”, Colonial Waterbirds, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 222-228.

Kishida, T., Kubota, S., Shirayama, Y. & Fukami, H. 2007, “The olfactory receptor gene repertoires in secondary-adapted marine vertebrates: evidence for reduction of the functional proportions in cetaceans”, Biology Letters, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 428-430.

Kooyman, G.L., Gentry, R.L., Bergman, W.P. & Hammel, H.T. 1976, “Heat Loss in Penguins during Immersion and Compression”, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-Physiology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 75-80.

Kooyman, G.L., Schroede.Jp, Greene, D.G. & Smith, V.A. 1973, “Gas-Exchange in Penguins during Simulated Dives to 30 and 68 M”, American Journal of Physiology, vol. 225, no. 6, pp. 1467-1471.

Le Vaillant, M., Wilson, R.P., Kato, A., Saraux, C., Hanuise, N., Prud’Homme, O., Le Maho, Y., Le Bohec, C. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. 2012, “King penguins adjust their diving behaviour with age”, Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 215, no. 21, pp. 3685-3692.

Meir, J.U., Stockard, T.K., Williams, C.L., Ponganis, K.V. & Ponganis, P.J. 2008, “Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguins”, Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 211, no. 8, pp. 1169-1179.

Ponganis, P.J., Welch, T.J., Welch, L.S. & Stockard, T.K. 2010, “Myoglobin production in emperor penguins”, Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 213, no. 11, pp. 1901-1906.

Richdale, L. E., 1958, “A Population Study of Penguins. Univ. of Kansas Press Lawrence”, The Wilson Bulletin, vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 205-207

Stonehouse, B.E.R.N.A.R.D. 1960, “The king penguin Aptenodytes patagonica of south Georgia. I. Breeding behavior and development”, Falkland Islands Dependencies Surv Sci Rept, vol. 23, pp. 1-81.

Stonehouse, B. 1975, The Biology of penguins, Macmillan, London.

Taylor, R.O.W.L.A.N.D.H. 1962, “The Adelie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae at Cape Royds”, Ibis, vol. 104, no. (2), pp. 176-204.

Thomas, D.B. & Fordyce, R.E. 2007, “The heterothermic loophole exploited by penguins”, Australian Journal of Zoology, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 317-321.

Thomas, D.B., Ksepka, D.T. & Fordyce, R.E. 2011, “Penguin heat-retention structures evolved in a greenhouse Earth”, Biology Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 461-464.

Trivelpiece, W.Z., Bengtson, J.L., Trivelpiece, S.G. & Volkman, N.J. 1986, “Foraging Behavior of Gentoo and Chinstrap Penguins as Determined by New Radiotelemetry Techniques”, Auk, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 777-781.

Williams, C.L., Sato, K., Shiomi, K. & Ponganis, P.J. 2012, “Anaerobic Energy Stores in Emperor Penguin Muscle: Implications for Muscle Metabolism and Dive Performance”, Faseb Journal, vol. 26.

Wilson, P.R., Ainley, D.G., Nur, N., Jacobs, S.S., Barton, K.J., Ballard, G. & Comiso, J.C. 2001, “Adelie penguin population change in the pacific sector of Antarctica: relation to sea-ice extent and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current”, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 213, pp. 301-309.

Wilson, R.P., Adelung, D. & Latorre, L. 1998, “Radiative heat loss in gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) adults and chicks and the importance of warm feet”, Physiological Zoology, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 524-533.

Wilson, R.P., Hustler, K., Ryan, P.G., Burger, A.E. & Noldeke, E.C. 1992, “Diving Birds in Cold Water – do Archimedes and Boyle Determine Energetic Costs”, American Naturalist, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 179-200.

Zenteno-Savin, T., Leger, J.S. & Ponganis, P.J. 2010, “Hypoxemic and ischemic tolerance in emperor penguins”, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology & Pharmacology, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 18-23.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>