Threats

Exploitation such as hydrocarbon, pharmaceuticals, carbonate, seabed extraction (sand and gravel), disposal of sewage particles, industrial waste, and dredge spoil are all causing major shifts occuring in the marine environment (Gage & Tyler, 1991). CWC reefs have become an important habitat to research in the marine environment as industries involving in fisheries, oil exploitation and mineral resources have majorly increased (Galkiewicz, 2011; Roberts & Hirshfield, 2004; Davies et al, 2007; Lumsden et al, 2007; Synnes, 2007). These corals perform important ecological functions due to specific biological characteristics such as fragility, slow growth, and capacity for building habitats. Severe factors such as oil spills, ocean acidification, and sea bottom trawling have left an impact on their survival rates and existence (Roberts et al, 2009).

CWC mounds are made up of carbonate matter, coral skeletons, fauna shells, and detritus (Eisele, 2008). During the pause on the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the early interglacial conditions, CWCs endured low water movement affecting their food supply as less food flowed towards corals for filter feeding to occur. Amount of food supply can vary depending on glacial bottom currents. If bottom currents are weak, less filter feeding may occur with corals in the deep as hemipelagic sediments cover coral mounds from slow reaction with chemicals (Eisele, 2008).

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