Icebergs does not formed themselves, they are derived from the large glaciers and ice sheet that covered the Greenland and Ellesmere Island in the Arctic and become the conspicuous feature of polar marine landscapes. Ice dominated the ecology of Polar Regions. The ice sheets grow from snow accumulation and eventually reaching the coasts, and tides, currents, wind and wave action cause stresses and promote ice sheets to break up and vary in size.
Arctic Ocean is covered by about 14 million km2 and 7 million km2 of frozen seawater in winter and summer, respectively. In the Arctic, when the sea ice begins to melt at the surface, the extensive melt pools formed and decreased the albedo which result in more solar radiation was absorbed and the melting process was increased.
Pack ice formed from the freezing seawater when the surface of the water got its freezing point,-1.8℃. The formed ice crystals rise to the surface with organisms stick to. And the freezing ice crystals accumulated to formed bigger discs, ice pancakes. After one or two days, from pancake to “super pancake”, a closed ice cover has formed, strong enough to work on the ice with heavy sledges, generators, and ice coring equipment. Still, the pack ice is dominated by water currents, wind and wave action.(Kaiser, Michel J,2005)