Introduction

  The word Arctic comes from the Greek ἀρκτικός (arktikos) (Henry and Robert, 2010).” The Arctic is a polar region located at the northern part of the Earth, composing of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Alaska (United    States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden. The Arctic region consists of a vast ocean with a seasonally varying ice cover, surrounded by treeless permafrost. The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33’N), the approximate limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Alternatively, it can be defined as the region where the average temperature for the warmest month (July) is below 10 °C (50 °F); the northernmost tree line roughly follows the isotherm at the boundary of this region (Addison, Kenneth 2002).””Precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow. The Arctic’s annual precipitation is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm (20 in). Average winter temperatures can be as low as −40 °C (−40 °F), and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately −68 °C (−90 °F) (wikipedia).”
  “The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth’s ecosystems. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. In recent years The Arctic is suffered by current global warming, leading to Arctic sea ice shrinkage and Arctic methane release.” Life in the Arctic has also been affected including polar benthos, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants and human societies (Kaiser, Michel J, 2005).

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