When talk about the Arctic, the first come to your mind might be the snow blizzards and the vast bleak ice. However, when the aurora borealis light up the sky you might think that is the incredible physical force made by nature world. The Arctic is not always gloomy and depressed, if you have seen the sled dog running on the snow and the mother polar bear teach her child how to catch a seal.
“The Arctic Ocean is almost covered by 14 million km2 of frozen seawater in winter, although by summer only about 7 million km2 melts. 1/3 of the ocean is taken up by shelf seas with depths of 100m or less. In fact, the Arctic Ocean only has a mean depth of 1800m, the smallest of any ocean.” (Kaiser, Michel J, 2005).
100% fresh water froze into ice in winter, and melt in summer. Everything happened with no warning. In winter, the ice grow from ice cube to ice pancake and gradually reaching the coasts. In summer, tides, currents, wind and wave action cause stress in the ice pack and break up it into icebergs vary in size(Kaiser, Michel J,2005).