Underneath the white snow cover, the color of ice often turn into brown or coffee, caused by a flourishing polar organism including viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, flatworms, and small crustaceans. The amount of organism decreased considerably as latitude get higher. Bacteria are visible on the surface of larger organisms in ice bergs. As the temperatures declined, bacterial populations move from the diverse mixed species to species. Planktonic organisms stick or are caught by the ice crystals and rise through the water when surface water freeze. Then, as the ice grows and consolidates, the organisms are trapped in the brine channels. Psychrophilic heterotrophs is fuelled by large pool of dissolved organic matter produced by the death and lysis (Kaiser, Michel J, 2005).

Trees cannot grow in the Arctic Ocean due to the freezing summer temperature, however, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m in height and sedges, mosses and lichens can form thick layers. Most part of the ground is bare in the coldest part of the Arctic with very few amount of lichens and mosses dominated and fewer amount of grasses and forbs (wikipedia).

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